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Manas National Park

Manas Wildlife Sanctuary

Manas National Park – complete detail – updated. Dominant flora and fauna of Manas National Park. Manas National Park is a beautiful place. Geography of Manas National Park. How to reach Manas National Park. Manas is famous for its population of the Wild water buffalo, rare golden langur and the red panda.

Manas was declared as a National Park in 1990. The name ‘Manas’ is derived from the Hindu deity, the snake goddess ‘Manasa’ and is also shared with the Manas river that transverses through the park. Total area of the park is about 500 Km2. The Manas river flows thorough the west of the park and is the main river within it. The Manas River also serves as an international border dividing India and Bhutan. It is a major tributary of Brahmaputra River and splits into two separate rivers, the Beki and Bholkaduba as it reaches the plains. Five other smaller rivers also flow through the National Park which lies on a wide, low-lying alluvial terrace spreading out below the foothills of the outer Himalaya………….

The park is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife. Manas is recognized not only for its rich biodiversity, but also for its spectacular scenery and natural landscape which includes a range of forested hills, alluvial grasslands and tropical evergreen forests. Twenty-one animal species listed in Schedule I of India’s national Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 live in the grassland ecosystem of the park, including tigers, Asian elephants, one-horned rhinos, golden langurs and golden cats, hispid hares, swamp deer, gaur and clouded leopards…………….

National park is an area which is strictly reserved for the betterment of the wildlife & biodiversity, and where activities like developmental, forestry, poaching, hunting and grazing on cultivation are not permitted. Their boundaries are well marked and circumscribed.

Manas National Park

Manas National Park is a beautiful place, located in the two districts Bongaigaon, & Barpeta, in the state of Assam. Manas is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Tiger Reserve, Elephant Reserve, Biosphere Reserve, National Park and also a Wildlife Sanctuary.

The park is situated near the Manas River which is one of the major tributaries of the Brahmaputra Riverand divides the park in two halves. Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan.

Manas was proposed a Reserve Forest in 1905, and declared a Reserve Forest in 1907. In 1928, it was declared a Game Sanctuary.

Manas Game Sanctuary was declared as a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1950. Manas was declared as Biosphere Reserve under Man & Biosphere Programme of UNESCO (total area – about 2837 Km2) in 1989.

Manas was declared as a National Park in 1990. Total area of the park is about 500 Km2. The name ‘Manas’is derived from the Hindu deity, the snake goddess ‘Manasa’ and is also shared with the Manas river that transverses through the park.

The park is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife. Manas is famous for its population of the Wild water buffalo, rare golden langur and the red panda. The park is also home to some of the rare wildlife species including one horned rhinos, leopards, clouded leopards and the amazing black panthers. Apart from the wild beasts, the place is haven for local and migratory bird- A paradise for watchers.

Manas is recognized not only for its rich biodiversity but also for its spectacular scenery and natural landscape which includes a range of forested hills, alluvial grasslands and tropical evergreen forests. Its home to India’s second-largest tiger population. Manas harbours the maximum number of endangered species from India as listed in the IUCN Red Book.

About the half of the Park is covered by Grasslands of Terai and Bhabar type, the riparian areas have colonizing grasslands and woodlands of several species. The thick woodlands are called Eastern Moist Deciduous Forests of various types.

Twenty-one animal species listed in Schedule 1 of India’s national Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 live in the grassland ecosystem of the park, including tigers, Asian elephants, one-horned rhinos, golden langurs and golden cats, hispid hares, swamp deer, gaur and clouded leopards.

History

In past, the Cooch Behar royal family and Raja of Gauripur used the park as a hunting reserve.

Manas was proposed a Reserve Forest in 1905, and declared a Reserve Forest in 1907. In 1928, it was declared a Game Sanctuary.

Manas Game Sanctuary was declared as a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1950. Total area of the sanctuary is about 360 Km2. In 1973, it was declared as Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger (total area – about 2837 Km2)

In 1985, Manas was declared as World Heritage Site (Natural) by UNESCO for outstanding universal value. Manas was declared as Biosphere Reserve under Man & Biosphere Programme of UNESCO (total area – about 2837 Km2) in 1989.

The Indian government added Kahitama Reserved Forest, the Kokilabari Reserved Forest and the Panbari Reserved Forest in the year 1990 to form the Manas National Park.

Manas was declared as a National Park in 1990. Total area of the park is about 500 Km2. In 2003, Manas was declared as Chirang – Ripu Elephant Reserve under Project Elephant. It was removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger, following the advice of IUCN, UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee in 2011.

The name ‘Manas’ is derived from the Hindu deity, the snake goddess ‘Manasa’ and is also shared with the Manas river that transverses through the park.

Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) and the Assam Forest Department, started bringing rhinos, elephants and other wildlife back to the park.  So far, six rhinos and 11 elephants have been released into Manas, including a group of five elephants in 2011.

Geography

The park area falls in six districts: Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Malaria, Kamrup and Darrang in the state of Assam. Manas, sitting in the Eastern Himalayas foothills, has dense forests throughout.

The Manas river flows thorough the west of the park and is the main river within it. The Manas River also serves as an international border dividing India and Bhutan. It is a major tributary of Brahmaputra River and splits into two separate rivers, the Beki and Bholkaduba as it reaches the plains.

Five other smaller rivers also flow through the National Park which lies on a wide, low-lying alluvial terrace spreading out below the foothills of the outer Himalaya.

The average elevation of the area is 85 m above mean sea level. The park is divided into three ranges. The western range is based at Panbari, the central at Bansbari near Barpeta Road, and the eastern at Bhuiyapara near Pathsala.

The bedrock of the savanna area in the north of the park is made up of Limestone and sandstone, whereas the grasslands in the south of the park stand on deep deposits of fine alluvium.

The terrain is characterized by rocky, porous soils like sandstone, limestone and shale in the bhabar tract towards the north. The coarse detritus is covered with sandy loam and a fine layer of humus.

Much of the riverine dry deciduous forest is at an early successional stage. It is replaced by moist deciduous forest away from water courses, which is succeeded by semi-evergreen climax forest in the northern part of the park.

Vegetation

  • Assam Valley Semi-Evergreen Alluvial Grasslands.
  • Sub-Himalayan Light Alluvial Semi-Evergreen forests in the northern parts.
  • East Himalayan mixed Moist and Dry Deciduous forests.
  • Low Alluvial Savanna Woodland.

Dominant Flora

A total of 543 plants species have been recorded from the core zone. Of these, 374 species are di-cotyledons, 139 species mono-cotyledons and 30 are Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms.

Aphanamixis polystachya, Anthocephalus chinensis, Syzygium cumini, Syzygium formosum, Syzygium oblatum, Bauhinia purpurea, Mallotus philippensis, Cinnamomum tamala, Actinodaphne obvata, Bombax ceiba, Ster

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